Postmodernism is a revived form of Modernism, developed between the 1950s and the 1980s. it uses a mixture of old and new styles as a reaction against Modernism. Postmodernism follows Modernism and extends its cultural range. First of all, Modernism finds its origins in the Enlightenment. This era celebrates sciences, capitalism, rational though and the individual. Postmodernism turns some of that aspect upside down and it takes time to develop: as a matter of fact, its ideas were born many years ago thanks to the contribution of different thinkers like Marx, Weber, Freud and Lyotard. The comparison between the two movements is very difficult therefore the differences have been organized into eight dimensions.The first one examines society and social structure. Modernist thought focuses the attention on the totalizing theory. Therefore it emphasizes key concepts like equilibrium, homeostasis (Freud), forces of rationalization (Weber), order and homogeneity.
Postmodernism instead presents metanarratives connected to concepts like disorder, not equilibrium, flux and change.
It recognizes and accepts fragmentation as a feature of the 20th century, and differently from Modernism that tries to create a re-establishing of forces, Postmodernism underlines a dissenter of meaning.
Moreover it advocates marginalized positions and considers a dissipative subject that implies both a relative stability and a continuous change.
Modernism thought considers a stability and an order in roles too.
As a matter of fact a functional integration has key roles, according to roles of people. The metaphor of the orchestra clarifies the functional importance of each own components.
Postmodernism instead presents an unstable image; (strange actors).
The Enlightenment was the era of individual, therefore, analyzing the third dimension, we may draw the attention on the centre of subject, considered by Modernist, instead of postmodernism's idea of dissenter subject.
In Modernism, discourses are neutral and they develop a linear ay of thinking, according to the principle of not contradiction.
Moreover nouns have more importance rather that verbs.
Postmodernism treats the review and consider every writing as a re-writing, according also to the concept of inter-textuality.
Discourse is not neutral and it shows a new way of communication. As a matter of fact knowledge is considered fragmentary, partial and relative; in other words there are may truths therefore reality does not exist.
Instead Modernism is influenced by the Enlightenment, therefore a totalizing theory has a central role to discover truth thanks also to scientific knowledge.
Space has three dimensions; the Newtonian mechanics and Euclidean geometry are central questions.
In Postmodernism chaos theory has developed the theory of fractal and multidimensional space.
In science the quantum mechanic underlines the principle of not determination.