Es. 1 pag. 395
Trasforma le frasi nella forma passiva. Ometti il complemento d’agente quando non è necessario.
1. Beer is never drunk by Michael.
2. Our summer holidays have just been booked.
3. Some texts are sent by Rachel two days ago.
4. When I arrived, the mirror had already been broken.
5. Vegetables are grown by farmers.
6. Don’t worry. He will be called by me straight away!
7. A ghost has just been seen in the castle.
8. More than 30 plays are written by Shakespeare.
Es. 2 pag. 395
Completa il brano che descrive come si produce il profumo, inserendo i verbi tra parentesi in forma passiva al simple present.
HOW PERFUME IS MADE…
For the first step, natural ingredients such as flowers, fruit and wood are harvested from around the world. Alcohol, petrochemicals and other chemical substances are also used in the manufacture of perfumes. Not every plant contains essential oils; oils aren’t produced naturally by, for example, lily of the valley flowers.
In the next step, the oil is extracted. This is done immediately after picking. Solvent extraction is a common method. To extract oils from roses, layers of petals are placed on a methal-layered drum. The flowers are then immersed in a solvent. The result of this process is a waxy material that contains the oil, which is then washed in ethyl alcohol. The oil is dissolved in the alcohol and rises. Other extraction methods include steam distillation, enfleurage and maceration. A huge number of plants is needed to get a small amount of essential oil. Approximately 200,000 rose flowers, that is 400 kilograms of flowers required to make 600 grams of essential oil.
Once the essential oil is ready, it is blended together according to a certain formula and then it is mixed with alcohol. It may take as a many as 800 different ingredients and several years to develop the special formula for a scent. In the last step of the process, the perfume is aged for several months or even years after it is blended.
Es. 3 pag. 395
Fai una ricerca sul procedimento di produzione dell’olio d’oliva e scrivi un breve testo per descriverlo usando principalmente frasi passive.
HOW OLIVE OIL IS MADE…
For the first step, the olives are harvested from October to December. There are many methods: the traditional method, where olive oil trees are beaten with a stick so that the olives dropped to the ground; the mechanical method, where olive oil trees are shaken by machinery and the olives are dropped in a net; the manual method, where the olives are chosen by the people.
In the next step, the olives are then placed in boxes and they are transported to the oil mill, where they are weighed. The olives are then defoliated and immersed in a tub of water or in mechanical washing machines. The milling is the first step of extraction of olive oil, where the olives become a solid part (for example peel, pulp) and a liquid part (for example olive juice). The methods of execution are two: the pressing in a mechanical way and in a traditional way, where the olives are compressed with stone millstones. Also to extract the olive oil there are two different types: mechanical method, where are used mechanical or hydraulic presses and traditional method, where is used the centrifuge.
In the last step of this process is made the separation, wich is obtained the olive oil. It is left to rest for several months and after it is placed in bottles to be sold.
Es. 4 pag. 395
Completa le frasi con i verbi tra parentesi in forma passiva e al tempo indicato.
1. We got there late and the birthday cake had already been served.
2. Is there anybody here who knows when the Tower of London was built?
3. Some of these paintings have been lent by a private collector.
4. If it stops snowing tomorrow, the roads will be cleared!
5. The ticket that won the first prize in the lottery was bought last week near Rome.
6. Yesterday the alarm of a car that had been parked near ours rang for more than two hours!
Es. 5 pag. 395
Trasforma le seguenti frasi passive nella forma negativa e interrogativa.
1. The car isn’t washed by David every Saturday. / Is the car washed by David every Saturday?
2. The film hasn’t been seen by lots of teenagers. / Has the film been seen by lots of teenagers?
3. The children weren’t helped by an elderly lady. / Were the children helped by an elderly lady?
4. That bridge hadn’t been built just the year before. / Had that bridge been built just the year before?
5. A ghost hasn’t been seen here. / Has a ghost been seen here?
6. The meeting won’t be put off. / Will the meeting be put off?