Communication » 2LSCA Communication
by 2019-09-26)- (
Exercise 1 (page 395)
1) beer is never drinked by Michael
2) our summer holidays have just been booked by us
3) two days ago some texts were sent by Rachel
4) When I arrived, the mirror was already broken by him.
5) Vegetables are grown by farmers
6) Don't worry. He will be carried straight away by me!
7) A ghost has just been seen by somebody in the castle
8) more than 30 plays were wrote by Shakespeare.
Exercise 2 (page 395)
For the first step, natural ingredients such as flowers, friut and wood are harvested from around the world. Alcohol, petrochemicals and other chemical substances are also used in the manufacture of perfumes. Not every plant contains essential oils; oils are not produced naturally by, for example, lily of the valley flowers.
In the next step, the oil is extracted. This is did immediately after picking. Solvent extraction is common method. To extract oil from roses, layers of petals are placed on a metal-layered drum. The flowers are then immersed in a solvent. The result of this process is a waxy material that contains the oil, which is then washed in ethyl alcohol. The oil dissolves in the alcohol and rises. Other extraction methods include steam distillation, enfleurage and maceration. A huge number of plants are needed to get a smoll amount of essential oil. Approximately 200,000 roses flowers, that is 400 kilograms of flowers required to make 600 grams of essential oil.
Once the essential oil is ready, it is blended together according to a certain formula and then it is mixed with alcohol. It may take as many as 800 different ingredients and several years to develop the special formula for a scent. In the last step of the process, the perfume is aged for several months or even years after it is blended.
Exercise 3 (page 395)
After olives are picked and washed, they’re crushed – sometimes between two big stones, but now more commonly by steel blades.
The resulting paste is stirred to release the oil droplets in a process called maceration, before being spun in a centrifuge to pull out the oil and water. After the water is removed, what is left is olive oil.
Exercise 4 (page 395)
1) we got there late and the birthday cake had been served.
2) Is there anybody here who knows when the Tower of London was built?
3) Some of these paintings has been lent by a private collector.
4) If it stops snowing tomorrow, the roads will be cleaned!
5) The ticket that won the first prize in the lottery was bought last week near Rome.
6) Yesterday the alarm of a car that has been parked near ours rang for more than two hours.
Exercise 5 (page 395)
1) The car isn't washed by David every Saturday. / Is the car washed by David Saturday?
2) The film hasn't been seen by lots of teenagers. / Has the film been seen by lots of teenagers?
3) The children weren't helped by an elderly lady. / Were the children helped by an elderly lady?
4) That bridge hadn't been built just the year before. / Had the bridge been built just the year before?
5) A ghost hasn't been seen here. / Has a ghost been seen here?
6) The meeting will not be put off. / Will the meeting be put off?