Communication » 2LSCA Communication
AGambino - the 26th of September
by 2019-09-26)- (
Ex.1 page 235
1) Michael never drinks beer.
Beer is never drunk by Michael.
2) We have just booked our summer holidays.
Our summer holidays have just been booked by us.
3) Rachel sent some texts two days ago.
Some texts were sent by Rachel two days ago.
4) When I arrived, he had already broken the mirror.
When I arrived, the mirror had already been broken by him.
5) Farmers grow vegetables.
Vegetables are grown by farmers.
6) Don’t worry. I’ll call him straight away!
Don’t worry. He will be called by me straight away!
7) Somebody has just seen a ghost in the castle.
A ghost has just been seen by somebody in the castle.
8) Shakespeare wrote more than 30 plays.
More than 30 plays were written by Shakespeare.
Ex.2 page 235
For the first step, natural ingredients such as flowers, fruit and wood are harvested from around the world. Alcohol, petrochemicals and other chemical substances are also used in the manufacture of perfumes. Not every plant contains essential oils; oils aren’t produced naturally by, for example, lily of the valley flowers.
In the next step, the oil is extracted. This is done immediately after picking. Solvent extraction is a common method. To extract oils from roses, layers of petals are placed on a metal-layered drum.
The flowers are then immersed in a solvent. The result of this process is a waxy material that contains the oil, which is then washed in ethyl alcohol. The oil is dissolved in the alcohol and rises. Other extraction methods include steam distillation, enfleurage and maceration. A huge number of plants are needed to get a small amount of essential oil. Approximately 200,000 rose flowers, that is 400 kilograms of flowers are required to make 600 grams of essential oil.
Once the essential oil is ready, it is blended together according to a certain formula and then it is mixed with alcohol. It may take as many as 800 different ingredients and several years to develop the special formula for a scent. In the last step of the process, the perfume is aged for several months or even years after it is blended.
Ex.3 page 395
In the past olive oil trees were shaken or beaten with a stick so that the olives dropped to the ground.
Yet, in this way many olives bruised, that’s why today gentler procedures are used.
Today, the olive oil trees are shaken by some machineries, then the olives are harvested and they’re transported to the oil mill. After, they are also washed.
With the milling, the olive oil is extracted for the first phase. Later, the liquid is collected by a machinery in larger oil drops. Then, the olive oil is finally extracted.
The last phase is the separation; the water still present in the liquid is separated from the final form of oil.
Ex.4 page 395
1) We got there late and the birthday cake had already been served.
2) Is there anybody here who knows when the Tower of London was built?
3) Some of these paintings have been lent by a private collector.
4) If it stops snowing tomorrow, the roads will be cleared.
5) The ticket that won the first prize in the lottery was bought last week near Rome.
6) Yesterday the alarm of a car that had been parked near ours rang for more than two hours!
Ex.5 page 395
1) The car is washed by David every Saturday. The car isn’t washed by David every Saturday. Is the car washed by David every Saturday?
2) The film has been seen by lots of teenagers. The film hasn’t been seen by lots of teenagers. Has the film been seen by a lots of teenagers?
3) The children were helped by an elderly lady. The children weren’t helped by an elderly lady. Were the children helped by an elderly lady?
4) That bridge had been built just the year before. That bridge hadn’t been built just the year before. Had the bridge been built just the year before?
5) A ghost has been seen here. A ghost hasn’t been seen here. Has the ghost been seen here?
6) The meeting will be put off. The meeting won’t be put off. Will the meeting be put off?