1)Post-colonialism as all post-ism is a trend of thought that developed in opposition to what had happened before. Colonialism represented the European attitude of building up an imperialistic policy in far away lands. On the contrary post-colonialism rejected colonialist values, but it also added new perspectives to new themes that were not present in colonialism. It started in opposition to colonialism but it went beyond.
2)Post-colonialist literature focuses on some topics: dependence and independence, the identity of minorities, colonialism that is still going on in cultural terms, ethnicity, marginalization, globalization, racism.
3)The sentence considers the importance of building up a new cultural system for people who had been submitted to the European culture imported by the colonization process. When European countries colonized territories all over the world they didn't care if there were local identities: they exported their cultural background from their home town. Since the European system accords very well to the economic power the colonies who gained their political independence didn't gain their economic dependence, therefore an Eurocentric cultural system still goes on today.
4)Post-colonialism is the historical period that followed decolonization: it started in 1947 with more or less violent processes, and is still going on by the decentralization of industries into the "third world". It is also a literary trend that started in the 70's which had the aim to give voice to marginalized populations.
5) All Post-colonialist books are not resistance books: for example a lot of writers are permeated by European culture, or in countries such as U.S.A., Canada, Australia you cannot refer to a Post-colonialist literature even if there were natives in those places once upon a time.
6) "Orientalism" should be considered a seminal text about Post-colonialism because Post-colonialist studies developed in the 70's starting from the ideological themes analyzed by the book. Although it refers to the hostile role between the "West", that represents the "rational part" and the "East", that represents the "unknown, so irrational part", the book has become a paradigm for conflicts between European civilization and the other civilizations.
7) Power has got two functions. On one side you have the oppressive power of colonists, on the other the power of resistance. Resistance was celebrated because in it you can see the awareness of marginalized people of their condition, and all this has been influenced by Marxism. By awareness and resistance you create the concept of identity: only in between a relationship you can notice the differences with the "alter" and the things that have always remained the same in you.
8) Post-colonialism is a trend that has got an inner spirit of innovation because it always puts into question the assumptions of dominant culture, it doesn't refuse all globalized culture, but it tries to find a mediation between the local needs and the economic interest. Last but not least you have to consider that Post-colonialism is a rather vague label: therefore it leaves the boundaries free just for renewal.
9) Foe can be considered a Post-colonial novel by the ethnicity of its novelist, and by the themes which rely on the role of weak people and the race.